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CONCEPTS OF CULTURE

Published Apr 11, 2008

What is culture?

Culture is the way of life.

Culture is manifested in music, literature, lifestyle, painting and sculpture, theater and film and similar things.
Although some people identify culture in terms of consumption and consumer goods (as in high culture, low culture, folk culture, or popular culture),

Anthropologists understand "culture" to refer not only to consumption goods, but to the general processes which produce such goods and give them meaning, and to the social relationships and practices in which such objects and processes become embedded. For them, culture thus includes art, science, as well as moral systems.

Some definition of culture-

* Culture is an instant reality and apparatus of satisfaction biological delights need.
-Melinowski.  
* Culture is the sum total of integrated long behavior patterns which are characteristics of members of society.
    - Hoebel
* Religion is one kind of culture.
* Culture ...................as that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society" -(Tylor 1871, p. 1, emphasis added)
           
* Culture which is a way of life, is a socially learn and enquired behavior that committed to generation to generation.
 
It is the holistic emphasis of cultural anthropology that distinguishes it most clearly from other related disciplines. For example, an anthropologist may focus his or her research on a particular dimension of culture, such as religion or political organization, but that dimension will also be described in terms of its relationship to the "complex whole" of the local culture.

*Characteristics Features of culture. 
Or. Fundamental features of culture:

1.     Culture is learned behavior.

2.     Culture is society equated behavior.

3.     Culture is a heritage of man.
 
4.     Culture is always idealized.
 
5.     Culture is satisfies human needs.

6.     Culture is the production of human society.

7.     Culture is the manifestation of human capacity.
 
8.     Culture is changeable through periods.

9.     Culture is transmitted from generation to generation.

10.     Culture varies from societies to societies.

 
*Culture are two kinds-

1. Material culture

2. Non-Material culture

Material Culture: Chair, Table, Fan, Freeze, Television, Horse, Building etc.

Non-Material: Non-Material culture consists of the words. The people speak. The believes, they holds, values and virtues, they charish, habits, the follow, retunes  and the practice they do and they ceremonies, they observed it also includes our customs and manners, attitudes and our look in brief our ways of acting feelings and thin kings.

* Cultural Diversity-

1.     Culture is learn,
 
2.     Culture is symbolic

3.     Culture is series nature.

4.     Culture is shared.
 
5.     Culture is patterned

6.    Culture diversities for people’s creativity.

7.    Culture is adaptive

8.    Culture is general as specific.

* Cultural Evolution
 
Herodutus (484-425 B.C) East and west (1700) North-South (1600)

1. Spoken language.
 
2. Material Culture.
 
3. Marriage and Diverse systems.

4. Haws and government

5. Family and religion etc.

*Evolutionism-

1. Classical evolutionism

2. Neo- evolutionism

* Classical evolutionism:
1. America – H.H. Morgan.
 
2. British- Herry Maine, Mc lennam. Tylor, James Frager.

3. German – Bacofon, Bastian.